नीतिशतकम् (संस्कृत एवं हिन्दी अनुवाद) – The Niti Shatakam of Bhartrahari. Pages from the Language: Sanskrit Text with Hindi Translation. Size. Bhartṛhari is a Sanskrit writer to whom are normally ascribed two influential Sanskrit texts: scholarship. The name Bhartrihari is also sometimes associated with Bhartrihari traya Shataka, the legendary king of Ujjaini in the 1st century. Atha Nitishatakam – Sanskrit Shlokas + English Translation on Human Behaviour. by Bhartrihari. Book Description. Rupa CONDITION: NEW — BINDING.
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Bhartriari. Full text of ” The Satakas of Bhartrihari. Translated into English from the original Sanskrit by B. Hale Wortham ” See other formats: OF the three Satakas or centuries of couplets ascribed to Bhartrihari, the Mti and Vairagya Satakas alone are included in the following pages.
The Sringara Sataka contains so many stanzas requiring modification, so many more wholly untranslatable into English, that on due consideration I have decided to omit this collection of stanzas from the volume now published.
It only remains for me to convey my thanks to the friends who, in various ways, have so kindly and willingly contributed their aid in helping me to carry out this work. These are questions to which no satisfactory answer has as sabskrit been given. It has been alleged that he was of regal descent, and the brother of Vikramaditya ; that not only did he belong to a reigning family, but that he was next in suc- cession to the crown, and that, disgusted with the world, he resigned in favour of his brother Vikrama.
He is the reputed author of three Satakas or centuries of couplets: Sringara Sataka, a purely amatory poem ; 2. Niti Sataka, on polity and ethics ; 3. Vairagya Sataka, on religious austerity. Besides these, tradition assigns to nitishatzkam a grammar called Vakyapadiya, and a poem called Bhattikavya.
But beyond tradition there is no evidence whatever as to the authorship of these Satakas. The theory already referred to, that Bhartrihari was a prince who quitted the world in disgust, is founded upon the somewhat vague allusions in the second Sloka of the Niti Sataka.
This has been supposed to refer to the discovery of a domestic intrigue in his own household, which so shook Bhartrihari’s faith in worldly matters, that he decided to abdicate his royal position, and to retire into the forest as an ascetic. But whoever the author may have been, there seems a continuity and a uniformity in each of these separate Satakas, as well as a similarity in character between them, which forbid us to accept the theory that they are merely a compilation of well-known sayings.
The unbroken tradition, moreover, that they are the authorship of one man whatever his name may be should not go for nothing. The question of date is almost as difficult to decide as that of authorship, and this can only be arrived at approximately on internal evidence.
The doctrines enun- ciated in the Vairagya Sataka are relied on as supplying us with some of the proofs that are required. Many of the Slokas in this Sataka speak in the language of the Vedantic philosophy.
The rooting out of Karma or action, absorption into the Supreme Spirit, the driving out of Moha or illusion by Jnana, or the true knowledge- these ideas occurring very frequently in the Vairagya Sataka, all point to Vedantic influence. The eighth or ninth century A.
Not that this date can be held as conclusive; for though Sankaracharya, the great exponent and formulator of the Vedantic philo- sophy flourished and taught at that date, it is not, there- fore, proved that the Vedantic doctrines did not exist before his time ; and it necessarily follows, therefore, that neither similarity of idea nor of phraseology can warrant us in making Bhartrihari’s Satakas cotemporary with Sankaracharya.
The argument as to their date from the mention of the Puranas in the Vairagya Sataka seems to be equally unconvincing. Some of the Puranas may be even com- paratively modern productions, as late as the fourteenth or fifteenth century; but some are much earlier, dating back to the fifth or sixth century A. Therefore, to derive any satisfactory conclusion as to dates from the mention of the Puranas in the Vairagya Sataka, we should require to know what Puranas are referred to in the particular passages whether the works known to us as Puranas or those known under that name to Amara Sinha.
He grounds his view on the following considerations. Tradition informs us that the author of the Satakas was Bhartrihari, the brother of King Vikrama, and that he also composed a grammatical work called the Vakyapadiya. This work shows us that its author lived at least one generation after Patanjali’s com- mentary on Panini’s Grammar, called Mahabhashya, had come into general use.
The date of Patanjali varies according to different authorities from B. Bhartrihari, in the Vakyapadiya, notices the fact that the Mahabhashya had gone through changes and rearrange- ments of text ; possibly interpolations and additions. The period between B. We have, however, seen that Vikramaditya was said to be the brother of Bhartrihari. This date allows an interval of more than two centuries between Patanjali and Bhartrihari, a period of sufficient 1 Some, however, have placed Amara Sinha in the middle of the third century A.
On these grounds, then, such as they are, the authorship of these Satakas has been assigned to the end of the first or to the beginning of the second century A.
Some attempt has been made to fix Bhartrihari’s date by comparison with that of Kalidasa. But the date of Kalidasa himself is not sufficiently well ascertained to arrive at any certain conclusion by that method. Much, therefore, as to the date and authorship of these poems must be left to probability and conjecture. That woman is attracted by another man whom I supposed to be always devoted to me: Bhartriihari on her and on him, on the god of love, on that woman, and on myself.
The man who is entirely ignorant is easily guided: A man may get oil from sand by violent bhartriari The Creator has given sansrkit, as it were, a cloak to conceal bharfrihari ignorance: That gift is silence, the special ornament of the ignorant in the assembly of the wise.
When I knew but a little, I was blinded by pride, as an elephant is blinded by passion: Then I came into the presence of the wise who know many kinds of wisdom, and my pride left me even like a fever.
A dog eats with delight putrid abominable bones, and though the king of the gods may stand before him, takes no heed: The Ganges falls from heaven upon the head of Siva ; from the head of Siva on to the mountain ; from the top of the mountain to the earth, always falling lower and lower: A cure has been ordained by the Sastras for everything, but there is no medicine for the cure of a fool.
The man who has no sense of literature and music is like a beast, though he has not horns and a tail: It is better to wander in a mountain-pass with the wild beasts than to live in the palace of the gods with a fool.
The Praise of Wisdom. When wise men dwell in poverty men whose words are adorned with polished sayings from the Sastras, and who impart sacred learning to their disciples then that prince in whose kingdom they dwell is chargeable with folly, and the wise men, though poor, are the rulers of the land. Should not those bad examiners be worthy of condemnation who through carelessness cause jewels to fall from their true value? Who indeed may compare with them?
Despise not wise men who have attained to know- ledge of the truth. They are not held bound by riches, for they count wealth even as grass. The stalk of a water- lily will not bind an elephant who is infuriated sanskrt passion. The Creator in his anger may hinder the swan from sporting in the lotus-bed, his bhartriihari ; but he cannot take away his faculty of separating milk from water.
Bracelets are no asnskrit to a man, nor strings of pearls clear as the moon ; nor yet bathing, nor perfumes, nor flowers, nor decorated hair. Perfect eloquence alone adorns a man. Adornments may perish, but the orna- ment of eloquence abides for ever. Wisdom, indeed, is the highest ornament that a man possesses.
It bhartriyari a valuable to be carefully guarded, for wisdom gains food, glory, and blessing. Wisdom is as a friend to a man travelling in a distant land. Wisdom is honoured among kings even more than wealth. The man devoid of wisdom is but an animal. If a man has patience, what need has nirishatakam of armour? If he has anger hbartrihari his heart, what further enemy need he fear?
If he has knowledge, what need of fire to consume evil? If a friend, what need has he of divine medicines?
If there are malicious people about him, why should he be afraid of serpents? If he has perfect wisdom, what need of riches? If he is modest, what need has he of orna- ment?
If he give his mind to poetry, what need has he of power? Be well disposed towards relatives ; liberal to infe- riors: Be firm towards enemies ; be respectful to venerable men ; deal shrewdly with women.
The man who frames his life after these precepts prospers in the world. Intercourse with wise men takes away dulness of mind, elevates the intellect, inspires the speech with truthfulness. What will it not bharrihari for men? May there be glory to wise men who are learned and accomplished poets!
There is no fear that their renown shall wither or perish. A virtuous son, an affectionate wife, a liberal master, a loving friend, a guileless kinsman, a mind not harassed by care, a handsome form, abiding riches, a mouth abound- ing in wisdom these are the gifts bhaftrihari Hari, the giver of desires, the delight of the earth, bestows upon the man with whom he is pleased.
Abstinence from destroying life, keeping one’s hands off another’s wealth, speaking the truth, reasonable liberality according to one’s power, not conversing with the wives of other men, checking sznskrit stream of covetous- ness, reverence towards spiritual fathers, compassion to- wards all creatures this is the path of happiness, violating no ordinances, taught in all the Sastras.
The low-minded man does not make even the least effort in the pursuit of wisdom through fear of difficulties: The noble-minded man may meet with repeated hindrances, but when he has once begun the pursuit of wisdom he does not give it up. Eighteousness must be loved ; evil must be avoided, even at the risk of death ; wicked men must not be spoken to ; a poor man, even though he be a friend, must not be asked for alms: The Praise of Firmness.
The byartrihari, though overwhelmed by hunger and weak- ened by old age, though at the point of death and in a state of misery, and though his majesty may have left him and his life be vanishing away, yet his whole desire is to swallow bhartrlhari one mouthful the forehead nitishatakak the kingly elephant which he has crushed in pieces.
Bhartrihari’s Nitishatakam – Of Cabbages and Kings
How should he, the mightiest of living things, feed upon withered grass! A dog rejoices over a small filthy bone of an ox which he has found ntiishatakam of flesh, though it satisfies not his hunger ; but the lion passes by the jackal stand- ing near him and attacks the elephant. So the bharhrihari of firm mind, even though he may be in distress, desires that which is in accordance with his natural disposition.
The dog falls down low before the feet sanxkrit one who gives him food, wagging his tail and opening his mouth wide ; but the elephant, on the other hand, remains un- moved, and bhartrlhari eats after he is entreated with flattering words. What man is not born again while he passes from one birth to another? But that man only is truly born by whose birth his family attains to dignity. There are two uses both for a garland of flowers and also for a wise man they may be exalted on the head or wither in the forest.
Although the five or six planets, of which Vrihas- pati bhartriyari the head, are held in high esteem, yet Eahu, whose power and might are great, does not attack them.